On March 2, 2020, Fisheries and Oceans Canada released a letter that intended to communicate their approach for developing fisheries management actions to address conservation concerns for Fraser River Chinook over the next year.
On April 9, the MCC submitted a letter in response detailing our Management Recommendations, Rationale and Evaluation. In it we detail management, monitoring, and assessment actions that should be in place for 2020 fisheries across the coast that contribute to Fraser River Chinook Total Mortalities. We also provide a rationale and context underlying our recommendations, and have provided feedback into the Management Measure Evaluation Framework.
The MCC’s proposed 2020 Management Actions for conserving and rebuilding Fraser 5-2 endangered and threatened chinook are in recognition that the 5% total mortality cap for these SMUs was exceeded in 2019, possibly by over 100% in some instances (see Appendix A). This is based on evaluating 2019 total mortalities relative to terminal abundance. If 2019 total mortalities are evaluated relative to escapements, the cap was exceeded by 400 to 600%, depending on the SMU. The absence of GSI make similar estimates for 4-2 Chinook difficult. Indications are that that 2019 impacts on 4-2 Chinook were lower, but likely still exceeded the cap.
In a press release and backgrounder sent out on February 5th, 2020, the MCC provided an estimate of total mortalities of endangered and threatened Fraser 42 and 52 Chinook in south coast recreational fisheries. This estimate was based on the recreational fishery in Areas 17, 18, 19, 20, 29 and 121 (roughly Juan de Fuca, Victoria through to the entrance of the Fraser River and south Strait of Georgia) and its potential impacts on Fraser 52 and 42 Chinook stocks of concern (early timed Chinook which spend several months in freshwater before migrating into the marine environment).
Since those preliminary estimates were released, the authors of the original discussion paper have invested considerable time refining input data (genetic stock ID information) in collaboration with DFO. We also incorporated additional information and perspectives to inform the model’s ‘risk factors’. During the review of the genetic stock ID data, it was decided to drop Fraser 42 Chinook from the new analysis as GSI estimates for 42 were highly uncertain. It is therefore difficult to directly compare the February 5th estimate to the current estimate.
The new estimate of total mortalities applies only to Fraser 52 Chinook. The elimination of 42 from the analysis, in addition to the refined model inputs, reduces the estimated number of total mortalities attributed to the south coast recreational fishery to between 1,000 and 2,000, from the February 5th estimate for both 42 and 52 Chinook of 3,500. Click below to read the full clarification.
Deadline for comments extended until April 9.
DFO released a letter detailing their 2020 Fraser River Chinook Management Approach on March 2. Comments are due by March 27th, 2020.
This letter is intended to communicate the Department’s approach for developing fisheries management actions to address conservation concerns for Fraser River Chinook over the next year.
Given the early run timing of some Fraser Chinook populations, the Department plans to implement management measures that were announced for the 2019 season beginning April 1st, 2020 as interim measures to provide time for a technical review of the 2019 fishery management measures and completion of consultations on possible adjustments to these management measures. The Department plans to meet with First Nations and established advisory groups during consultations in March and April to discuss potential adjustments to management measures, evaluate outcomes and document support for alternative management measures to support decision making. Interim measures beginning April 1st, 2020, will be in place until a decision is made surrounding future measures.
DFO has released draft Northern and Southern Integrated Fishing and Management Plans for Salmon. Comments are due by April 15th.
ESTIMATING TOTAL MORTALITIES ON ENDANGERED CHINOOK
February 6, 2020
Fisheries managers, First Nations, and stakeholders are becoming more aware that Fisheries Related Incidental Mortality (FRIM) can contribute significantly to Total Mortalities (TM) in fisheries. As a case study on one fishery, we examine potential FRIM and TMs in Spring and Summer Fraser River Chinook populations designated as ‘Endangered’ by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) (Table 1).
The South Coast Juan de Fuca recreational fishery encounters Spring and Summer Fraser River (42 and 52) Chinook from Southwest Vancouver Island to the mouth of the Fraser River (DFO fishery management areas 18,19,20,29,121). As the largest and oldest Chinook that return to the Fraser River, these fish are important to endangered Southern Resident killer whales and as a source of food for interior First Nations.
We apply the guidance provided in Patterson et al. (2017b) and interviews with anglers to identify risk factor ranges for Capture, Injury, Handling, and Predation Mortality. These are combined with drop-out mortality and a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate a range of FRIM. Other factors that may affect estimates of FRIM, such as the stock composition of releases, are also investigated.
Our results suggest that current methods for estimating FRIM employed by both DFO (15% x releases) and the Pacific Salmon Commission (PSC) Chinook Technical Committee (15% drop-out mortality on catch and 10% immediate mortality on releases) likely underestimate FRIM when compared to the Patterson et al. (2017b) approach.
In conclusion, we discuss management recommendations for improved monitoring and identify information needs in both this fishery and others that effect endangered chinook.
Read the full report for more details.
Conservation groups released information today that provides evidence that more endangered Fraser River Chinook were killed in fisheries last year than promised by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Despite a commitment to reduce Fraser spring and summer Chinook mortality to less
than five per cent, recent analyses using the federal government’s own data suggest
this limit was far exceeded and that a full fisheries closure would have allowed at least 25 per cent more endangered Chinook salmon to spawn. Last year marked the lowest return of Fraser River spring and summer Chinook on record: fewer than 14,500 reached their spawning grounds.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada lacks adequate monitoring to fully assess fishing mortality of Chinook, but for three of the 10 fishing areas, there is enough data to show that at least 4,000 spring and summer Fraser Chinook were killed. The number of spring and summer Fraser River Chinook that successfully made it to their spawning grounds in 2019 was less than 14,500 — the lowest number on record.
Read the press release and the backgrounder for more information.
The MCC recently submitted comments on the 2019/2020 Pacific Herring Integrated Fisheries and Management Plan, recommending considerations towards a “low risk” ecosystem based management fishery.
The growing public concern reflects a perspective that the fishery imposes too large a risk to herring populations and the associated ecosystem linkages than what is deemed appropriate through the lens of an ecosystem based fishery. Many of these concerns are the same ones that were raised over a decade ago.
The following recommendations are included in the letter:
- Increase the lower reference point to reflect an ecosystem based conservation objective.
- Lower the exploitation rate.
- Plan for a lower biomass and harvest rate until validated with in-season management.
- Assume there is a mechanism for persistent geographic population structure.
- Consider ecosystem and economy trade-offs.
On November 12, 2019, the salmon committee of the MCC submitted a letter to the Right Honourable Justin Trudeau detailing Pacific mandate priorities.
Key components of the mandate are detailed below:
- Review and update DFO management structures and processes to account for unprecedented low returns, increasing climate change impacts, and implementation of First Nations co-management
- Restore stock assessment capacity, including spawning ground counts, to advance in-season stock identification tools
- Implement the restored habitat protection provisions and new rebuilding requirements under the Fisheries Act
- Develop emergency recovery strategies for salmon Conservation Units identified as threatened or endangered
- Complete comprehensive, peer-reviewed biological risk assessments of salmonid hatchery facilities, and make this an ongoing requirement under the new Aquaculture Act
On August 22nd, the DFO released a new report examining broad scale trends in Pacific salmon. They found that species that spend more time in freshwater (chinook, coho, sockeye) are declining more than those that do not (chum, pink), in general.
Read the abstract below, or download the full article.
At DFO’s first State of the Salmon meeting in 2018, scientists concluded that Canadian Pacific salmon and their ecosystems are already responding to climate change. Northeast Pacific Ocean warming trends and marine heatwaves like “The Blob” are affecting ocean food webs. British Columbia and Yukon air and water temperatures are increasing and precipitation patterns are changing, altering freshwater habitats. The effects of climate change in freshwater are compounded by natural and human-caused landscape change, which can lead to differences in hydrology, and increases in sediment loads and frequencies of landslides. These marine and freshwater ecosystem changes are impacting Pacific salmon at every stage of their life-cycle.
Some general patterns in Canadian Pacific salmon abundances are emerging, concurrent with climate and habitat changes. Chinook numbers are declining throughout their B.C. and Yukon range, and Sockeye and Coho numbers are declining, most notably at southern latitudes. Salmon that spend less time in freshwater, like Pink, Chum, river-type Sockeye, and ocean-type Chinook, are generally not exhibiting declines. These recent observations suggest that not all salmon are equally vulnerable to climate and habitat change.
Improving information on salmon vulnerability to changing climate and habitats will help ensure our fisheries management, salmon recovery, and habitat restoration actions are aligned to future salmon production and biodiversity. To accomplish this, we must integrate and develop new research across disciplines and organizations. One mechanism to improve integration of salmon-ecosystem science across organizations is the formation of a Pacific Salmon-Ecosystem Climate Consortium, which has been recently initiated by DFO’s State of the Salmon Program.
The MSC released its Final Report and Determination today on the Alaskan Salmon Fishery.
The Final Report and Determination provides information on the re-certification process and sets out the results of the recent assessment of the Alaskan Salmon Fishery. This is the fourth full assessment of the fishery and the first re-assessment of the Prince William Sound Unit of Certification.
For more information on the Alaskan Fishery certification visit the MSC website here.